By Dr. Ni Putu Tirka Widanti (Yayasan Kul Kul)
Since the 1960s, foreign education and teaching have been established in Indonesia. It was regulated by Law No 48 of 1960 concerning Supervision of Foreign Education and Teaching. This Law had derivative rules i.e. Mutual Decision Letter of Three Ministers concerning the Existence of Diplomatic Representative School, Diplomatic Representative Joint School, and International School. It was strengthened by Decision Letter of Minister of Education and Culture No 0184/0/1975 concerning the Implementation Directive of Establishment and Operation of Diplomatic Representative School, Diplomatic Representative Joint School, and International School. At the time, there were 34 international schools without time limitation permit.
Then, in 1989 it was enacted the Law No 2 Concerning National Education System which also regulated the recognition of private school existence with one of the characteristics was internationally reputed. The period of school permit was valid for 5 years given to 18 international schools, yet in the beginning, admitted as national plus school. However, this Law was not derived into Government Regulation and Regulation of Education and Culture Minister as more specific regulations.
Afterward, it was issued the Decision Letter of General Directorate of High and Elementary Education in 2000 concerning Tryout of the joint of Indonesian to the international school which implemented IB curriculum in 7 schools out of 34 international schools without time limitation permit. This last regulation caused many schools applied for establishment permit. These schools applied for establishment permit to the General Directorate of High and Elementary Education. Afterward, this directorate reported to the Minister of National Education. On 20 October 2008, there was disposition from the Minister which issuing a temporary permit for 2 years to 57 schools excluded from those who had an unlimited permit and 5 years permit.
Article 77 of Law No 20 of 2003 concerning National Education System revoked the Law No 48 of 1960 concerning Supervision of Foreign Education and Teaching. Further, it was issued Regulation of Minister of National Education No 18 of 2009 concerning Education Management by Foreign Education Institution in Indonesia. At this point, there was an affirmation of not recognizing international school.
By not recognizing international school so there were two options that could be chosen as alternatives, i.e. to be standard school or categorized independent, or could become local strength-based education unit. Thirdly, they could be an international standardized education unit. Yet, the last option has been sentenced could not operate by Constitutional Court as judging the public suit. Fifth, they could become an education unit, which is operated by foreign representatives or cooperation education unit (known as SPK).
There are some problems faced by SPK, which one of them is the difficulty of joining the national school and foreign school because the foreign school should be accredited both in their country and in Indonesia. Besides that, the opportunity of arranging the management especially the composition of investment and management is not as easy as in common regular school. Based on Government Regulation 17/2010, SPK could apply foreign curriculum system yet in other side becoming contradictory with education national standard, as well as not synchronized with national accreditation system. Usually, the management foundation of the international school is national foundation so it will be very difficult to be replaced by a foreign representative foundation.
The policy direction of the cooperation of this SPK has been in detail regulated in Government Regulation of 17/2010. The articles have explicitly managed the operation of this education cooperation, which one of them should be accredited in its origin country. This foreign education institution should cooperate with the Indonesian education institution. Requirements of the operations are: holding a permit from the Minister of Education and Culture, following education national standard, Indonesian students should follow the National Examination and the school should be accredited by the National Accreditation Agency.
Another requirement is about the number of education staff and teacher. Indonesian teacher should be minimum 30 percent and the education staff should be minimum 80 percent. Meanwhile, the remuneration system applies a fair system. This regulation is related to the operating system.
A management system that can be done is in form of teacher and education staff exchange, student exchange, the use of resources, twin program implementation, extracurricular program and other necessary cooperation.
The form of the cooperation is cooperation between the Ministry of Education and Culture with the Embassy of the Foreign Country. It can be also between Ministry of Education and Culture with the admitted Foreign Education Institution. SPK in every kind and level of education could use more than one international curriculum or join the used international curriculum. Meanwhile, the implementation of the national curriculum in SPK should minimum insert subjects of Religion Education, Citizenship Education, and Indonesian.
Concerning the conducted accreditation is based on the cooperation of Foreign Education Institution and BAN with a principle that the assessment of the accreditation is conducted by international curriculum provider in which Ministry of Education and Culture accompanying the process and accepting the report. Accreditation instruments by the international curriculum provider also engage additional accreditation component from the Ministry. The evaluation conducted by international curriculum provider becomes the basis for accreditation assessment by the BAN.
Concerning the permissions, although the number of SPK is low compared to regular school after the issue of this regulation concerning ex-international school, so the permissions become more complete and detailed. It is few yet complicated. Before the permission issue was centralized in the Ministry but now there should be a recommendation from the local government (Education Office) in which the SPK established. In detail, SPK is regulated in Regulation of Education and Culture Minister No 31 of 2014 concerning Cooperation of Education Operation and Management by Foreign Education Institution and Indonesia Education Institution. This regulation is derived by other technical regulations i.e. Regulation of General Directorate of High and Elementary Education of Education and Culture Ministry No 407/D/PP/2015 concerning Technical Guidelines of Cooperation of Education Operation and Management of High and Elementary Education by Foreign Education Institution and Indonesia Education Institution.
Supervision of SPK includes surveillance and evaluation, supervision, report and follow-up of supervision conducted by the Ministry and Education Office based on the existing Laws. The coverage of supervision is addressed on administration and educational technics. Surveillance and evaluation are conducted sustainably regular to assess efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability. It is also conducted on the education system, including student, curriculum, learning process, teacher, education staff, facilities, evaluation, management, and financing.
Elements involving in the surveillance and evaluation are Secretary General of the Ministry, General Inspectorate and General Directorate of High and Elementary Education. In the local setting, it may involve the Provincial Education Office and Provincial Labor Office. In Regency level, it may involve Education Office, Labor Office and Immigration Office. The implementation of surveillance and evaluation uses instruments compiled by General Directorate of High and Elementary Education of Education and Culture Ministry.
In the implementation of National Examination as mentioned previously, SPK has some notes. In the Circular Letter of General Directorate of High and Elementary Education No. 02/D/SE/2016 dated 1 March 2016 concerning the implementation of National Examination in SPK among others stated that supervision of SPK is the authority of the Ministry. It is also stated that supervision in the National Examination is conducted by each school and coordinating with the local Education Office. As well as the certificate as the signature of graduation for SPK is issued by SPK itself.
Seems that not all provisions and regulations of evaluation as required in National Examination have been fulfilled by SPK in this transition era. The requirement of having a score of semester 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 for instance, actually the curriculum provider which uses IB do not conduct semester general examination system. IB curriculum more emphasizes on group task investigation (such kind of project) with a more detailed procedure and the duration is not the same with examination system of daily, mid-semester examination and semester general examination, as we know in the national curriculum. They name it as Unit of Inquiry.
One learning unit is preceded by pretest. After that, the students directly go to working steps. One learning unit is interrelated with many aspects, as we know as thematic learning. All processes and procedures that have been done by the students in a direct investigation will be recorded by the teacher. Student team does not only do it at school, but they could go outside town or even another city. It could be a week. It may not only do the project but can be funding a project. Students are allowed to get financial support from their family. It is a simple CSR movement among them. In doing this, the team is not only supervised by a teacher but they could cooperate with NGOs from outside who help them.
At the end of the learning process, there will be the final test. Therefore, the evaluation is more reflected in a narrative way (explanation) about what they experience, what they master, and what their weaknesses. In Curriculum 2013, it is adopted by evaluation in form of core competence achievement description, but almost all of our teachers are complaining about this complicated evaluation. Besides that, our students’ parents are confused because we never applied this such comprehensive evaluation system.
This evaluation system also recognizes evaluation in form of numbers. The score in form of numbers is an accumulation from all phases and procedures that have been done before. The standard is at the level of 8 number. It may change based on the complexity of the steps in doing the project. However, the more important than this number is the explanation of the phases. This kind of evaluation system is highly dynamic. When investigation, the student may use book and information from the Internet even help from their colleagues.
Because of the complexity of this kind of evaluation system, the school examination and the certificate of the SPK is authorized by each school.
Green School as an international school in Indonesia follows this regulation also for each school from Early Years, Primary Years, Middle School, and High School, just like the rest of international schools around the country. Of course, as a school with a unique curriculum, some adjustments had to be done in order to comply with the regulation without losing Green School’s learning identity.